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Abandoned Well - A well no longer in use, whether dry, inoperable or no longer productive,
and the previous operator has intentionally relinquished its interest
in the well.
Acre-Feet - Unit of volume; one acre
of producing formation one foot thick. One acre foot equals 7,758 barrels,
325,829 gallons or 43,560 cubic feet.
Adjacent Estuarine Zones - This term
embraces the area inland from the coastline of Texas and is comprised
of the bays, inlets, and estuaries along the gulf coast.
Administrative Penalty - Statutory penalty
imposed by the RRC for violation of a rule.
Allowable - Amount of oil or gas which
a well, leasehold or field may produce per month under proration orders.
Associated Reservoir - Oil and gas reservoir
with a gas cap. Gas production from these reservoirs is generally restricted
in order to preserve the gas cap energy thereby increasing ultimate recovery.
r (BS&W) - Impurities
and water contained in the fluid produced by an oil well.
Bay Well - (SWR 14) Any well under the
jurisdiction of the Commission for which the surface location is either:
(a) located in or on a lake, river, stream,
canal, estuary, bayou, or other inland navigable waters of the state;
(b) located on state lands seaward of the mean high tide line of the Gulf
of Mexico in water of a depth at mean tide of not more than 100 feet that
is sheltered from the direct action of the open seas of the Gulf of Mexico.
Bbl, Barrel -- In the energy industry,
a barrel is 42 U.S. gallons measured at 60 º Fahrenheit.
BCF - The abbreviation for billion cubic
feet of gas. (see "cubic foot of gas")
BCF/D - The abbreviation for billion
cubic feet of gas per day.
BHP - The abbreviation for bottom-hole
Blind Nipple - Nipple (pipe with threads
at both ends) that can be blocked off from formation pressure and give
a false pressure measurement.
Blowout Prevention - Casinghead equipment
that prevents the uncontrolled flow of oil, gas and mud from the well
by closing around the drillpipe or sealing the hole.
BOPD - The abbreviation for barrels
of oil per day.
Bradenhead Completion - A head, screwed
into the top of the casing, used to confine gas in the well until release
through an outlet into a pipeline.
Bridge Plug - A downhole tool (composed
primarily of slips, a plug mandrel, and a rubber sealing element) that
is run and set in casing to isolate a lower casing interval while testing
an upper section.
Brine Well - A well used for injecting
fresh water into geologic formation comprised mainly of salt. The injected
freshwater dissolves the salt and is pumped back to the surface as a saturated
sodium chloride brine solution used as a feedstock in petrochemical refineries
and in oil and gas well drilling and workover operations.
BTU, British Thermal Unit(s) -- The
amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water
one degree Fahrenheit under standard conditions of pressure and temperature.
- Pipe cemented in the
well to seal off formation fluids or keep the hole from caving in.
Casinghead Gas - Gas found naturally
in oil and produced with the oil.
Casing-Tubing Annulus - Space between
the surface casing and the production casing.
Christmas Tree - The system of pipes,
valves, gauges and related equipment that is located on the well at ground
level and that controls the flow of gas and other petroleum products produced
from the well..
Common Reservoir - A pool or accumulation
of oil or gas that is produced in more than one well.
Condensate (also called Lease Condensate) -- Liquid hydrocarbons separated from gas production.
Crude Oil - Liquid petroleum as it comes
out of the ground as distinguished from refined oils manufactured out
Cubic Foot of Gas or Standard Cubic Foot of Gas - As a unit of volume, 1,728 cubic inches. As applied to water, 7.48 gallons.
As applied to natural gas, the volume of gas which, when saturated with
water vapor at 60ºF and at a pressure of 30 inches of mercury occupies
one cubic foot of volume.
l - Farthest distance
between two points on a proration unit.
Discovery Date - Date assigned to discovery
of a new field.
Discovery Well - The first oil or gas
well drilled in a new field. The discovery well is the well that is drilled
to reveal the actual presence of a petroleum-bearing reservoir, Subsequent
wells are development wells.
Disposal Well - Well used for disposal
of saltwater into an underground formation.
Dissolved Gas -- Commonly referred to
as solution gas. (Refer to solution gas)
District Office - The Commission designated
office for the geographic area in which the property or act subject to
regulation is located or arises.
Downstream -- This term is used in describing
operations performed after those at a point of reference.
Dry Gas - Natural gas that does not
have a significant content of liquid hydrocarbons or water vapor.
Dry Hole -- Any well that fails to discover
oil or gas in paying quantities.
Electric Logs - Recording
that indicates the well's rock formation characteristics by different
responses to electric current.
Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) - The use
of any process for the displacement of oil from the reservoir other than
Ethane -- A colorless odorless gaseous
hydrocarbon with the characteristics of the predominant molecule, CH3CH3.
Exploratory Well - Any well drilled
for the purpose of securing geological or geophysical information to be
used in the exploration or development of oil, gas, geothermal, or other
mineral resources, except coal and uranium, and includes what is commonly
referred to in the industry as "slim hole tests," "core hole tests," or
Extraction Loss -- The reduction in
volume and energy content of natural gas resulting from the removal of
natural gas liquid constituents.
- Assignment or partial
assignment of an oil and gas lease from one lessee to another lessee.
Field - Area of oil and gas production with at least
one common reservoir for the entire area.
Field Rules - Spacing and production
rules for the common reservoir in an area.
Formation -- A separate layer of rock
or group of intermingled beds.
Frac-- High pressure or explosive method
of fracturing rock formations
Fuel and Shrinkage - The difference
between the amount of gas produced at the wellhead and the gas that enters
a pipeline that can be associated with providing energy to on lease equipment
or removal of solution gas. The losses include but are not limited to
those from the separation process and field use, as well as fuel, flare
gas and plant liquids extraction.
-The process of raising
or lifting fluid from a well by means of gas injected down the well through
tubing or tubing casing annulus. Injected gas aerates the fluid to make
it exert less pressure than the formation pressure, consequently forcing
the fluid out of the wellbore.
Gas-Oil Ratio (G.O.R.) - Number of cubic
feet of gas produced per barrel of oil.
Gas Well - Any well:
(A) which produces natural gas not associated
or blended with crude petroleum oil at the time of production;
(B) which produces more than 100,000 cubic feet of natural gas for each
barrel of crude petroleum oil from the same producing horizon; or
(C) which produces natural gas from a formation or producing horizon productive
of gas only encountered in a wellbore through which crude petroleum oil
also is produced through the inside of another string of casing or tubing.
A well which produces hydrocarbon liquids, a part of which is formed by
a condensation from a gas phase and a part of which is crude petroleum
oil, shall be classified as a gas well unless there is produced one barrel
or more of crude petroleum oil per 100,000 cubic feet of natural gas;
and that the term "crude petroleum oil" shall not be construed to mean
any liquid hydrocarbon mixture or portion thereof which is not in the
liquid phase in the reservoir, removed from the reservoir in such liquid
phase, and obtained at the surface as such.
Gatherer - Includes any pipeline, truck,
motor vehicle, boat, barge, or person authorized to gather or accept oil,
gas, or geothermal resources from lease production or lease storage.
Gathering Line -- A pipeline that transports
oil or gas from a central point of production to a transmission line or
Geothermal Energy and Associated Resources--
(A) All products of geothermal processes, embracing
indigenous steam, hot water and hot brines, and geopressured water; (B)
Steam and other gases, hot water and hot brines resulting from water,
gas, or other fluids artificially introduced into geothermal formations;
(C) Heat or other associated energy found in geothermal formations;
(D) Any by-product derived from them.
Geothermal Resource Well - A well drilled
within the established limits of a designated geothermal field.
(A) A geopressured geothermal well must be completed
within a geopressured aquifer.
(B) A geopressured aquifer is a water-bearing zone with a pressure gradient
in excess of 0.5 pounds per square inch per foot and a temperature gradient
in excess of 1.6o F per 100 feet of depth.
-- Located in Erath,
LA, the Henry Hub is a pipeline interchange and the delivery point for
the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) active natural gas futures contracts.
Natural gas from the Gulf of Mexico moves through the Henry Hub onto interstate
pipelines serving the Midwest and the Northeast.
Horizontal Drilling - A well which is
not vertically drilled as defined in Statewide Rule 86.
Hub -- A location where several pipelines
interconnect. Also known as a market center.
Hydrocarbon -- An organic chemical compound
of hydrogen and carbon, called petroleum. The molecular structure of hydrocarbon
compounds varies from the simplet, methane (CH4), a constituent of natural
gas, to the very heavy and very complex. Octane, for example, a constituent
of crude oil, is one of the heavier, more complex molecules.
Independent Producer - An energy company,
usually in the exploration and production segment of the industry and
generally, with no marketing, transportation or refining operations. A
non-integrated producing company in the oil industry.
- Well used to inject
fluids (usually water) into a subsurface formation by pressure.
- Drilling rig equipment
that fits inside the rotary table and is also used as a reference point
on logs to calculate depth.
- Last string of casing
set in the well, covering the productive zone.
Low Temperature Extraction (LTX) Unit - Condensation of gas into a liquid by refrigeration.
-- One thousand cubic
feet of natural gas measured at standard pressure and temperature conditions
(see "cubic foot of gas").
MMbo -- Million barrels of oil.
MMBtu -- One million British thermal
units, 252,000 Kilocalories or 293 Kilowatt Hours.
MMcf - One million cubic feet.
Mud - Drilling fluid used to lubricate
the drill string, line, the walls of the well, flush cutting to the surface
and create enough weight to prevent blowouts.
Multiple 49(b) - Rule governing gas
well production from an oil reservoir gas cap.
Multiple Completion -- The completion
of a single well into more than one producing horizon. Such a well may
produce simultaneously from the different horizons, or alternatively from
- A naturally occurring
mixture of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon gases in porous formations
beneath the earth's surface, often in association with petroleum. The
principal constituent is methane.
Natural Gasoline - Gasoline manufactured
from casinghead gas or from any natural gas.
NGL, Natural Gas Liquids - Hydrocarbon
liquids extracted from natural gas.
- Any malodorous substance
added to natural or LP-gas in small concentrations for the purpose of
making the presence of the gas detectable.
Offshore Well - (SWR 14) Any well subject
to Commission jurisdiction for which the surface location is on state
lands in or on the Gulf of Mexico, that is not a bay well. (see bay well)
Oil Well - Any well which produces one
barrel or more crude petroleum oil to each 100,000 cubic feet of natural
Open-flow Test - A test made to determine
the volume of gas that will flow from a well during a given time span
with minimum restrictions.
Operator - A person, acting for himself
or as an agent for others and designated to the Commission as the one
who has the primary responsibility for complying with its rules and regulations
in any and all acts subject to the jurisdiction of the Commission.
Overproduction - Production in excess
of the well's monthly allowable.
-- Parts per million.
Perforations - Holes through casing
and cement into the productive formation.
Permeability - Ability of rock to transmit
fluids through pore spaces.
Person - Any natural person, corporation,
association, partnership, receiver, trustee, guardian, executor, administrator,
and a fiduciary or representative of any kind.
Pit - Hole dug out in the ground surface
for temporary storage of fluids during drilling operations.
Plug - Seal off formations to stop open
communication of formation fluids within a well.
Pollution - Unauthorized contamination
of surface or subsurface waters or land.
Pooled Unit - Unit created by combining
separate mineral interests under the pooling clause of lease or agreement.
Porosity - Percentage of the rock volume
that can be occupied by oil, gas or water.
Proration Unit - Acreage allocated to
a well for the purpose of determining an allowable.
PSIA - Pounds of pressure per square
inch absolute, using absolute zero as a base.
PSIG - Pounds of pressure per square
inch guage, using atmospheric pressure as a base.
PSI (pounds per square inch) - An English
system of measure of the amount of pressure on an area that is 1 inch
Processing Plant -- A plant to remove
Product - Includes refined crude oil,
crude tops, topped crude, processed crude petroleum, residue from crude
petroleum, cracking stock, uncracked fuel oil, fuel oil, treated crude
oil, residuum, casinghead gasoline, natural gas gasoline, gas oil, naphtha,
distillate, gasoline, kerosene, benzine, wash oil, waste oil, blended
gasoline, lubricating oil, blends or mixtures of petroleum and/or any
and all liquid products or by-products derived from crude petroleum oil
or gas, whether hereinabove enumerated or not.
Propane -- A gaseous hydrocarbon with
the characteristics of the predominant molecule CH3CH2CH3.
-- One quadrillion (1,000,000,000,000,000)
British Thermal Units (BTU)
- Hole adjacent to well
bore for storage of the kelly joint when not in use during drilling operations.
Reclamation Plant - Plant that treats
and reclaims waste oil.
Regular Permit - Permit to drill, plug
back or deepen that does not require an exception.
Reserve Pit - Pit used to collect spent
drilling fluids, cutting and wash water during drilling operations.
Reservoir - A porous, permeable sedimentary
rock containing commercial quantities of oil and gas.
Residue Gas - Gas remaining after processing
and extraction of NGL.
(SWD) - A well used
for the purpose of injecting produced water back into the ground.
Secondary Recovery - Hydrocarbons produced
in one well bore by increasing reservoir pressure with water injected
into an adjacent well bore.
Solution Gas - Gas which is dissolved
in oil in the reservoir under pressure.
Sour Gas - (SWR 79) Any natural gas
containing more than 1-1/2 grains of hydrogen sulfide per 100 cubic feet
or more than 30 grains of total sulfur per 100 cubic feet, or gas which
in its natural state is found by the Commission to be unfit for use in
generating light or fuel for domestic purposes.
Spot Market -- Short term, non-regulated,
arms length contract sales of natural gas, crude oil, refined products,
or liquid petroleum gas.
Spud Date - Date that drilling begins.
Storage Gas - A gas that is stored in an underground
reservoir.(see underground hydrocarbon storage)
Storage Tank - Tank for the accumulation
of oil pending transferal to a pipeline company or other purchaser.
Stratigraphic Cross Section - Series
of electric logs that illustrate formation correlation with one formation
as a datum.
Structural Cross Section - Series of
electric logs that illustrate subsurface structure by placing the logs
relative to sea level.
Substandard Acreage - Amount of acreage
that is less than the standard amount for a proration unit for a field.
Surface Casing - Outer casing cemented
in the upper portion of the wellbore to protect fresh water formations
Sweet Gas - All natural gas except sour
gas and casinghead gas.
- Tanks for oil storage
before delivery to a refinery.
Texas Offshore - This term embraces
the area in the Gulf of Mexico seaward of the coast line of Texas comprised
(A) the three league area confirmed to the State
of Texas by the Submerged Land Act (43 United States Code §§1301?1315);
(B) the area seaward of such three league area owned by the United States.
Therm - A unit of heat equivalent to
100,000 British Thermal Units (Btu).
3-D, Three Dimensional Seismic --Advanced
method for collecting, processing, and interpreting seismic data in three
dimensions. Three-dimensional seismic data are collected from closely
spaced lines over an area and the data are processed as a volume. The
advantages of three-dimensional seismic methodology include increased
resolution (through 3-d migration and deconvolution) as well as improved
interpretational tools and data displays (such as closely spaced parallel
seismic lines, horizontal time sections).
Tidal Disposal - Discharge of produced
water or other waste materials into tide influenced waters.
Tolerance Acreage - Small amounts of
acreage assigned to a proration unit after the unit is already established.
Transportation or to Transport - The
movement of any crude petroleum oil or products of crude petroleum oil
or the products of either from any receptacle in which any such crude
petroleum or products of crude petroleum oil or the products of either
has been stored to any other receptacle by any means or method whatsoever,
including the movement by any pipeline, railway, truck, motor vehicle,
barge, boat, or railway tank car. It is the purpose of this definition
to include the movement or transportation of crude petroleum oil and products
of crude petroleum oil and the products of either by any means whatsoever
from any receptacle containing the same to any other receptacle anywhere
within or from the State of Texas, regardless of whether or not possession
or control or ownership change. (See gatherer in general terms section
and transmission line in section pertaining to oil and gas well production
Transporter or transporting agency -
Includes any common carrier by pipeline, railway, truck, motor vehicle,
boat, or barge, and/or any person transporting oil or a product by pipeline,
railway, truck, motor vehicle, boat, or barge.
Tubing - String of pipe set inside the
well casing, through which the oil or gas is produced.
-- The use of sub-surface
geologic formations for storing liquid, liquefied or gaseous hydrocarbons,
such as natural gasoline, propane and natural gas.
Underproduction - Production that is
less than the allowable assigned to a proration unit.
Unitization - Joint operations to maximize
recovery among separate operators within a common reservoir.
Unitization Tract - Land subject to
a unitization agreement.
- Injecting water in
one well causing oil not recovered by primary production to migrate to
an adjacent well.
Development Well -- A well
drilled to a known producing formation in a previously discovered field.
Exploratory Well - Any well drilled for the purpose of
securing geological or geophysical information to be used in the exploration
or development of oil, gas, geothermal, or other mineral resources, except
coal and uranium, and includes what is commonly referred to in the industry
as "slim hole tests," "core hole test," or "seismic holes".
Wildcat Well - A well drilled for the
purose of discovering a new field or reservoir.
- Interval of subsurface